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Clinical Cardiology includes studies appertain to cardiac diseases viz., congenital heart diseases, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiovascular heart disease, and their epidemiology and pathophysiology of the heart. The therapeutic procedures involving diagnosis and management of cardiac diseases like electrophysiology, cardiovascular devices, cardiac regeneration, cardiac medicine, cardiac surgery, and identification of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect the heart. Diseases under the heart disease includes blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), among others. Heart disease term is often used interchangeably with the cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart failure, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease. Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.
Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions, such as narrowed arteries in your heart (coronary artery disease) or high blood pressure, gradually leave your heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump efficiently. Not all conditions that lead to heart failure can be reversed, but treatments can improve the signs and symptoms of heart failure and help you live longer. Lifestyle changes such as exercising, reducing salt in your diet, managing stress and losing weight can improve your quality of life. One way to prevent heart failure is to control conditions that cause heart failure, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity.
Cardiovascular Medicine is the most comprehensive provider of cardiovascular services specializing in the prevention, detection, management and treatment of adult cardiovascular diseases. It is a platform for postgraduate education and scientific work in the fields of cardiology, angiology, hypertension and cardiac and vascular surgery.
Innovative advancements and researches are being made in cardiac surgery every day. The world's all advanced technology and most experienced cardiovascular surgeons and cardiologists are welcome here. Cardiovascular surgeries are those which performed on the heart and circulatory system including the major veins and arteries. Cardiovascular procedures performed by cardiac surgeons.
High blood pressure is a serious cardiac disease. The pressure of the blood being pumped through the arteries is higher during hypertension It often has no warning signs or symptoms Over time, the constant pressure overload causes accumulating damage that eventually becomes more than circulatory system can handle, often leading to serious health problems Treating high blood pressure take a pronged approach including, medication, exercise and diet changes.
An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of your heartbeat. It means that your heart beats too quickly, too slowly, or with an irregular pattern. When the heart beats faster than normal, it is called tachycardia. When the heart beats too slowly, it is called bradycardia. The most common type of arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which causes an irregular and fast heartbeat. Many factors can affect your heart's rhythm, such as having had a heart attack, smoking, congenital heart defects, and stress. Some substances or medicines may also cause arrhythmias.
The cardiac electrophysiology study(EPS) typically measures the response of the injured or cardiomyopathic myocardium to programmed electrical stimulation on specific pharmacological regimens in order to assess the likelihood that the regimen will successfully prevent potentially fatal sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in the future. Such studies may also be conducted in the presence of a newly implanted or newly replaced cardiac pacemaker or automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators
Pediatric Cardiology is also called Pediatric Cardiopulmonary disease which involves the childhood disorder includes both the heart and lungs problems. Pediatric cardiologist is a pediatrician who has gotten broad preparing in diagnosis and treatment of kids' cardiovascular issues. Assessment and treatment may start with the embryo since heart issues can now be identified before birth.
Nuclear Cardiology has played a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis of heart disease and in the assessment of disease extent and the prediction of outcomes in the setting of coronary artery disease. Nuclear cardiology studies use noninvasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used.
A computed tomography scan is commonly called a CT scan or CAT scan is a test that uses X-rays to view specific areas of your body. These scans use safe amounts of radiation to create detailed images of the body, which can help the doctor to detect any problems. A heart, or cardiac, CT scan is used to view your heart and blood vessels. A heart CT scan may also be called a coronary CT angiogram if it’s meant to view the arteries that bring blood to your heart. The test may be called a coronary calcium scan if it’s meant to determine whether there is a buildup of calcium in your heart.
Molecular and Cellular Cardiology is a new and fast-growing area of cardiovascular medicine that aims to apply molecular biology techniques for the mechanistic investigation, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. As an emerging discipline, it has changed conceptual thinking of cardiovascular development, disease etiology and pathophysiology and advancing knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for both normal and diseased cardiovascular function.
Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty which deals with the patients who suffer from various conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular nurses handle the people with heart diseases and interact with their patients’ families. They may monitor and treat acutely ill patients, or they may focus on cardiac rehabilitation helping patients make lifestyle changes to prevent the worsening of their disease.
Cardiac Regeneration is a broad effort and comes into existence when the cardiac tissue is damaged and failed to regenerate the myocardium. Where the main principle behind cardiac regeneration is Reparative stem cells have the capability to restore function to damaged tissue by renewing cell growth in cardiac cells destroyed by heart disease. Reparative tools have been engineered to restore damaged heart tissue and function using the body's natural ability to regenerate. Current therapies includes such as adult stem and precursor cells, nuclear dynamics of the heart growth, Reprogramming Fibroblasts to Cardiomyocytes, Stem cells and cell therapy.
Cardiovascular Engineering is a wide spectrum of research, from basic to transitive in all attributes of cardiovascular physiology and medical treatment. The distribution of research that utilizes engineering principles and methods to enhance basic knowledge and technological solutions related to cardiovascular system. Coverage ranges from subcellular to systems level topics, including other implantable medical devices such as hemodynamics, tissue biomechanics, functional imaging, surgical devices, electrical physiology, tissue engineering and regenerative methods, diagnostic tools, transmission and delivery of biologics and biosensors.
Cardiovascular pharmacology is the main study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular Toxicology deals with the adverse effects on the heart or blood systems which result from exposure to toxic chemicals. It describes safety data of detrimental effects of new cardiovascular drugs
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease. After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging. After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed. When coronary artery disease causes chest pain or a heart attack, percutaneous coronary interventions, such as angioplasty alone or with a stent, can restore blood flow to your heart.
Implantable devices have been used for decades to treat heart disease. The first pacemaker was implanted over 40 years ago, and implantable defibrillators were first used in the early 1980s. But the last few years have witnessed a surge in both the types of devices being tested for heart-failure treatment, and in the optimism of experts about their usefulness.
An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a microcomputer that is implanted under the skin of your upper chest area. It is small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. It monitors your heart rate and delivers therapy in the form of small electrical pulses. A cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) is a type of specialized ICD used to treat heart failure. Getting a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) heart device is not an open-heart procedure. Before surgery, medication is usually given to make you sleepy and comfortable. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia.